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The earliest wargames were invented in the German states around the turn of the 19th century. They were derivatives of chess , but the pieces represented real military units cavalry, infantry, artillery, etc.
These early wargames were not taken seriously by the military because they were not realistic enough. The pieces were constrained to move across a grid in chess-like fashion: only a single piece could occupy a square even if that square represented, say, a square mile , and the pieces had to move square by square.
This, of course, did not represent how real troops maneuvered in the field. The grid system also forced the terrain to take unnatural forms, such as rivers flowing in straight lines and right angles.
In response to these criticisms, a Prussian nobleman and wargaming enthusiast named George Leopold von Reisswitz set out to develop a more realistic wargame wherein the units could move about in a free-form manner over more natural terrain.
Reisswitz first experimented with a table covered in a layer of damp sand. He sculpted the sand into a three-dimensional model battlefield, with hills and valleys.
He used little wooden blocks to represent troop formations. The Prussian princes heard about Reisswitz's project and asked for a demonstration. He showed it to them in , and they enthusiastically recommended the game to their father, King Wilhelm III.
Reisswitz did not want to present the king a table of damp sand, so he set about constructing a more impressive apparatus.
In , Reisswitz presented to the king a wooden table-cabinet. The cabinet's drawers stored all the materials to play the game. The cabinet came with a folding board which, when unfolded and placed on top of the cabinet, provided a gaming surface about six feet by six feet in size.
Instead of sculpted sand, the battlefield was made out of porcelain tiles, upon which terrain features were depicted in painted bas-relief.
The tiles were modular and could be arranged on the table surface to create a custom battlefield the scale was . Troop formations were represented by little porcelain blocks.
The blocks could be moved across the battlefield in a free-form manner; dividers and rulers were used to regulate movement. The royal family was delighted by Reisswitz's game, and frequently played it.
However, it was not adopted by army instructors nor sold commercially. The apparatus that Reisswitz made for the king was too expensive for mass-production.
For instance, the rules for resolving the effects of gunfire and hand-to-hand combat were not fully worked out.
By , Reisswitz seemed to have lost interest in wargaming altogether. He took over the development of his father's wargame after his father lost interest in it.
He developed the game with the help of a circle of junior officers in Berlin. The prince eventually heard of Reisswitz Jr. In the earlier wargames of Hellwig and Venturini, units were like chess pieces in that when attacked, they were simply killed and removed from play, even if the pieces represented groups of soldiers.
By contrast, units in Reisswitz's game could suffer partial losses yet still remain on the battlefield. A unit might withstand several rounds' worth of enemy attacks before finally collapsing.
Reisswitz's game was thus the first to incorporate unit hitpoints. It also modeled variable damage: The casualties inflicted by an attacker on his enemy were determined using dice.
Reisswitz Jr. The Prussian army had recently begun using such maps, which were the product of new advances in cartography and printing. These maps may have not been available to Reisswitz Sr.
The players did not directly control the troop blocks on the game map. Rather, they wrote down their orders for their troops and gave them to the umpire.
The umpire would then move the blocks across the game map according to how he judged the imaginary troops would interpret and carry out the players' orders.
The game also could simulate the fog of war , where the umpire would place on the map blocks only for the troops which were in visual range of both sides.
The umpire kept a mental track of where the hidden troops were located, and only deployed blocks for them when they came into view of the enemy.
The umpire also arbitrated situations which the rules did not explicitly cover, which plugged any gaps in Reisswitz Jr.
Naturally, this required the umpire to be an impartial and experienced officer. In early , the prince invited Reisswitz Jr.
They were impressed and officially endorsed his game as a training tool for the officer corps. The Chief of the General Staff, General von Müffling declared: "this is no ordinary sort of game, this is schooling for war.
I must and will recommend it most warmly to the army. Reisswitz established a workshop by which he could mass-produce and distribute it. In , Reisswitz was transferred away from Berlin to the provincial city of Torgau.
This was interpreted as a banishment: allegedly, he had made offensive remarks about his superiors. This disgrace was detrimental to the progression of his wargame for obvious reasons.
It wasn't until that the game was widely played in the military. Until then, it survived thanks to the efforts of a small number of wargaming clubs.
The earliest of these clubs was the Berlin Wargame Association. These clubs continued to develop Reisswitz's game, but they avoided mentioning his name in their publications.
In , the Berlin Wargame Association published a limited expansion to Reisswitz's system. In , they released a fresh wargaming manual which received a second edition in These updates sought to make Kriegsspiel more realistic, but they also made the rules more complicated.
Wilhelm von Tschischwitz published a Kriegsspiel manual in [c] that incorporated new technological advances such as railroads, telegraph, and breech-loading cannons; and which used conventional gaming dice.
In , Colonel Thilo von Trotha published his own wargaming treatise which went through three editions and had more complicated rules. The Austro-Prussian War of and the Franco-Prussian War of broke a long period of peace for the German states, which made many officers feel a pressing need to better familiarize themselves with the conduct of war.
This led to a surge in interest in Kriegsspiel among Prussian officers. Lieutenant Wilhelm Jacob Meckel published a treatise in [d] and another in [e] in which he expressed four complaints about the overcomplicated rules of Kriegsspiel : 1 the rules constrain the umpire, preventing him from applying his expertise; 2 the rules are too rigid to realistically model all possible outcomes in a battle, because the real world is complex and ever-changing; 3 the computations for casualties slow down the game and have a minor impact on a player's decisions anyway; 4 few officers are willing to make the effort to learn the rules.
The only things he kept were the dice and the losses tables for assessing casualties. In , General Julius von Verdy du Vernois proposed dispensing with all the rules and tools completely and allowing the umpire to arbitrate the game entirely as he saw fit.
Kriegsspiel attracted little attention outside of Prussia before In , the French general Auguste de Marmont witnessed a Kriegsspiel match in Berlin and commissioned a translation of Reisswitz's manual which was submitted to the French army in March Many credited the Prussian army's superior performance to its wargaming tradition.
The Prussian army did not have any significant advantage in weaponry, numbers, or troop quality, but it was the only army in the world that practiced wargaming.
Baring, based on the system of Wilhelm von Tschischwitz, was published in for the British army and received a royal endorsement.
Livermore published The American Kriegsspiel in In , a group of students and teachers at Oxford University founded the University Kriegspiel [ sic ] Club, which was the world's first recreational wargaming club.
Kriegsspiel has undergone a minor revival in the English-speaking world thanks to translations of the original rulebooks by a British wargaming enthusiast named Bill Leeson.
This summary is based on an English translation  of a wargaming manual written by Georg Heinrich Rudolf Johann von Reisswitz in Reisswitz's wargame was an instructional tool designed to teach battlefield tactics to Prussian officers.
It therefore aimed for maximum realism. The participants were expected to be well-versed in how battles were waged in the early 19th century.
This was particularly true for the umpire, who had to arbitrate situations which the rules did not cover using his own expertise.
Kriegsspiel is an open-ended game with no fixed victory conditions. The objectives of the respective teams are determined by the umpire and typically resemble the goals that an army might pursue in a real battlefield situation, such as expelling the enemy from a certain defensive position or inflicting a certain number of casualties.
The game is played between two teams and one umpire. Either team can have any number of players, but Reisswitz recommended 4 to 6 players each and that they be equal in size.
Only the umpire needs to be fully familiar with the rules, as he manipulates the pieces on the map and computes the outcomes of combat, whereas the players describe what they want their troops to do as if they were issuing orders to real troops in the field.
The map represents the battlefield. Troops on the battlefield are represented on the map by little rectangular pieces. In Reisswitz's time, these piece were made of lead, but modern reconstructions typically use plastic.
Each piece is painted with markings that denoted what kind of unit it represented cavalry, infantry, etc. The dimensions of each piece matched the dimensions of the actual troop formation it represented, to the same scale as the map.
Thus, each piece occupied an area on the map proportional to the space the actual troop formation would occupy in the field.
The umpire establishes the scenario of the game. He decides what the tactical objectives of the respective teams are, what troops they are provided with and how those troops are initially deployed on the battlefield.
The umpire will then assign each team the appropriate troop pieces for their units. If there are multiple players in a team, the teammates will divide control of their troops and establish a hierarchy of command in a way that should resemble Prussian military doctrine, subject to the umpire's approval.
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